DBA Resource Page

Variant Armies

DBM to DBA Armies
(Vol. 1, Book I, -- Armies Up to 500 BC)

By Bernd Lehnhoff
Translated by Mike Stelzer

The following is an English translation of the DBM to DBA army conversions done by Bernd Lehnhoff using the first edition DBM army lists. Elements marked "*" are historically appropriate for placement of the General. The Hordes troop type is indicated for those who use the Horde variant rule, otherwise convert to Spear or Auxilia as indicated. Note that Hordes conversions marked Ax6 and Sp8 are represented by Lehnhoff as double based elements that receive no support and cannot be supported by other units. They only count as one unit for play and victory purposes.

[ Book 1 ] [ Book 2 ] [ Book 3 ] [ Book 4 ]


  1. Egyptian, Later Predynastic Period (about 3400-3000 BC): 2 Wb3* (club and axmen), 4 Ax3, 4 Ps2 or Bw3, 2 Hd(ax6) or Ax3 (Levies).

  2. Mesopotamian, Sumeria (3000-2800 BC): 8 Pk4*, 4 Ps2 (Lehnhoff Note: "This is an estimated army list; am waiting for Nigel Tallis to send information, as soon as I get further details List will be updated")

  3. Egyptian, Old Kingdom and 1st Interperiod (about 3000 till 2160 BC): 1 Bd4*, 2 Sp4, 2 Sp4 or 2 Bd4, 2 Sp4 or 2 Hd(ax6) (Levie of Gaue), 3 Bw4, 1 Bw4 or Ps2, 1 Ps2 (Ps= Nubian, Bedouin and/or Libyan).

  4. Hill Tribes - Mesopotamian (3000 BC till about 1650 BC): 1 Bw3*, 5 Ax3, 3 Ps2 or Bw3, 3 Ps2.

  5. Elam (3000-2600 BC): 1 Bw3*, 11 Ps2 or Bw3.

  6. Nubian (3000-750 BC): 1 Bw3, 1 Wb3, 9 Ps2 or Bw3, 1 Ps2 (Psiloi with spears)

  7. Early Bedouins (3000-1500 BC): 1 Wb3* or Ax3*, 6 Ax3, 1 Ax3 or Ps2, 4 Ps2.

  8. Libyan (3000-74 BC): 1 Wb3* [or from 1250 BC: 1 LCH* (early two horse, later four horse chariot)], 9 Ps2 or Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  9. Mesopotamian, Sumeria (2800-2335 BC): 2 HCH*, 1 LCH* or Bd3* or Bw4 or Ps2, 6 Ax4*, 3 Ps2.

  10. Makkan (2800-1300 BC): 3 Bd3, 5 Ax3, 3 Ps2, 1 Ax3 or Ps2.

  11. India, Indus Culture (2700-1100 BC): 4 Sp4* or 4 Ax4*, 4 Bw4, 1 Ax3 or El or LH2, 3 Ps2 (Slingers).

  12. Elam (2600-2100 BC): 1 HCH* (Sumerian Chariots) or Bw4*, 2 Pk4 (Sumerian Spearmen), 9 Ps2 or Bw3.

  13. Syrian, Early States (2500-2200 BC): 1 HCH* or LCH*, 2 Pk4, 2 Ps2, 3 Ps2 or Bw3, 4 Ps2 or Ax3.

  14. Northern Beaker Culture (2400-1700 BC): 2 Bd3*, 6 Ax3, 2 Ax3 or Bw3 or Ps2, 2 Ps2.

  15. Mesopotamian, Akkad (2334-2279 BC): 1 HCH* or LCH* or Bd3*, 2 Pk4 or Ax4 (House/Royal Troops), 4 Pk4, 3 Ps2, [1 Bd3, 1 Ps2 (House/ Royal Troops)] or 2 Hd(ax6) (Reserves).

  16. Mesopotamian, Guti Tribes (2279-2193 BC): 1 LCH* or Bw4, 2 Pk4 or 2 Ax4 (House/ Royal Troops), 4 Pk4, 1 Ax3 or Ps2 (Guti warriors, 1 Bw3 or Ps2 (Elamite et.al.), 3 Ps2.

  17. Mesopotamian, Guti Kingdom (2193 till 2112 BC): 1 LCH* (Platform wagon) or Bw3*, 2 Pk4 (Sumerian-Akkadian Spearmen), 4 Ax3, 2 Ps2 or Bw3, 3 Ps2.

  18. Egyptian, Middle Kingdom (about 2160 till 1550 BC): 2 Bd4*, 3 Bw4, 4 Sp4, 1 Ax4 or Ps2, 2 Ps2 (Nubian, Bedouin and/or Libyan).

  19. Mesopotamian, Ur III (2112-2004 BC): 1 LCH* or Bw4, 2 Sp4 or 2 Pk4 or 2 Ax4, 4 Pk4 or 4 Sp4, 1 Ax3 or Ps2 (Highlanders), 1 Ax3 or Bw3 or Ps2 (Highlanders, Elamite), 3 Ps2. From 2027 must use 4 Sp4 units

  20. Elam (2100-1400 BC): 1 LCH* (Platform wagon), 1 Bw4* or Ps2 or Bw3, 10 Ps2 or Bw3.

  21. Mesopotamian, Sumerian Successor and Dynasty of the Sealand (2027-1460 BC): 1 LCH* or Bw4*, 6 Sp4, 1 Ps2 or Bw3 (Elamite), 1 Bw3 (Highlanders), 1 Ax3 (Amorite et. al.), 3 Ps2.

  22. China, Hsia and Shang (2000-1300 BC): [(before 1300 BC) 1 Bw4*] or [(from 1300 BC) 1 LCH* or HCH*], 4 Sp4 or 4 Bd4, 6 Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Bw3 or Ps2 or El.

  23. China, Early Northern Barbarian (2000-315 BC): 2 Wb3* or [(1100-950 BC) 1 LCH*, 1 Wb3] or [(from 450 BC) 1 Cv3* or LH2*, 1 LH2], 8 Wb3, 2 Ps2.

    also see: China, Red Di
  24. Mesopotamian, Later Amorite, Old Babylonian and Old Assyrian Period (1894-1595 BC): 1 LCH* or Bw4*, 4 Bd3, 2 Ax4 or Ps2, 2 Ax3 (Nomads), 3 Ps2.

  25. Syrian, Later States (1700-1100 BC): 3 LCH*, 1 Bw4 or Sp4 (House/ Royal Troops), 4 Ax3 or Hd (ax6) or Ps2, 2 Ps2, 2 Ps2 or Bw3

    also see: Syrian, Ugarit
  26. Hittites, Old and Middle Kingdom (1680-1380 BC): 3 LCH*, 1 Bd3, 3 Ax4, 3 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3, 1 Ax3 or Hd (ax6) (Levies).

  27. Mesopotamian, Early Kassite i.e. Hill Tribes (1650-1000 BC): 1 LCH*, 5 Ax3, 3 Ps2 or Bw3, 3 Ps2.

  28. Egyptian, Hyksos (1650-1350 BC): 3 LCH*, 4 Ax3 or Hd (ax6) or Ps2, 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3, [1 LCH, 1 Ax3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3] or [2 Sp4, 1 Bw4 (Egyptian)].

  29. Mitanni (1600-1250 BC): 6 LCH*, 2 Ax4 or 2 Sp4, 1 Ps2 or Bw4, 2 Hd(ax6) or Ax3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2.

  30. Greece, Minoan and Mycenaean (1600-1250 BC): 3 HCH*, 4 Pk4, 1 Ax3, 4 Ps2.

  31. North European, Bronze Age (1600-1200 BC): 1 LCH* or Wb3*, 2 Wb3 or (1 Bd3, 1 Ps2), 6 Wb3, 2 Ps2, 1 Hd(ax6) (Camp Followers etc.).

  32. Mesopotamian, Kassite and Later Babylonian Dynasties (1595-747 BC): 2 LCH*, 1 LCH or LH2 [or (after 890 BC) HCH*], 5 Ax3, 3 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3.

  33. Egyptian, New Kingdom (1550-1070 BC): 3 LCH*, 2 Sp4, 2 Bw4, 1 Bd4, [1 Ax4, 1 Ps2] or [1 Wb3, 1 Ps2] or [1 Ax4, 1 Wb3], 2 Ps2. Before 1279 BC ability to replace 2 Sp4 with Bd3 units.

  34. Early Bedouins (1500-1000 BC): 1 LCH* or Cm3*, 6 Ax3, 1 Ax3 or Ps2, 4 Ps2.

  35. India, Vedic Period (1500-500 BC): [till 900 BC: 1 LCH*, 1 Bw3, 1 Hd (ax6)] or [later: 1 HCH*, 1 El or Bw3, 1 Ps2 (Slingers)], 2 LCH, 1 Cv3, 6 Bw3.

  36. Elam (1400-800 BC): 1 LCH* (Chariot), 1 LH2 or Ps2 or Bw3, 10 Ps2 or Bw3.

  37. Hittites (1380-1200 BC): 3 HCH*, 2 LCH (Syrian or Anatolian), 2 Ax4, 1 Ax3 or Wb3 (anatolian vassals), 2 Hd(ax6) (Syrian spearmen), 1 Ps2 or Bw3 (Syrian archers), 1 Ps2 (anatolian archers).

  38. Mesopotamian, Middle Assyrian Kingdom (1365-860 BC): 2 LCH*, 2 Bd3, 2 Ax3, 4 Ps2, 2 Ps2 or Bw3.

  39. Syrian, Ugarit (1340-1200 BC): 1 HCH*, 2 LCH, 2 Bw4 or Sp4 (House/ Royal Troops), 1 Wb3 or Bd3 (Sherdan), 4 Ax3 or Hd(ax6) or Ps2, 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3.

  40. Makkan (1300-313 BC): 8 Wb3*, 3 Bw3, 1 Ps2.

  41. Northern Europe, Urn Field Culture(1300-700 BC): 1 LCH* or Wb3*, 8 Wb3, 1 Wb3 or Ps2, 2 Ps2.

  42. Greece, Later Myceneaen (1250-1150 BC): 2 LCH*, 6 Ax3 or 6 Ax4 or [ 4 Ax3, 2 Pk4 (Pylian)] or [4 Ax4, 2 Pk4 (Pylian)], 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3, 1 Wb3 (Myrmidons).

  43. Early Hebrew (1250-1000 BC): 8 Ax3*, 1 Wb3 (Simeonite and Ephraimite), 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3 (Benjaminite).

  44. Sea Peoples (1231-1165 BC): 1 LCH* or Wb3* or Bd3*, 1 Wwg (Ox carts) or Wb3, 1 Bd3, 8 Wb3, 1 Ps2.

  45. Philistine (1165-975 BC): 2 LCH*, 4 Sp4, 4 Ax3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3, 1 LH2 (Scouts) or Ax3 (Gibborim) or Ps2 (Slingers).

  46. Greece, Dark Age till Geometric Period (1150-700 BC): 1 LCH*, 1 Cv3*, 8 Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  47. Syrian, Neo-Hittite and Aramaean States (1100-901 BC): 2 LCH*, 1 Cm3, 5 Ax3, 2 Ps2 or Bw3, 2 Ps2.

  48. China, Western Chou Dynasty (1100-770 BC): 2 HCH*, 4 Sp4 or Bd4, 4 Bw3 or Bw4, 1 Bd3, 1 Ps2.

  49. Early Pre-Islamic Arabs(1000-313 BC): 2 Cm3*, 1 LH2 (Scouts on Camels), 5 Ax3, 3 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3.

  50. Italian Villanovan Culture (1000-650 BC): 1 Cv3*, [(before 800 BC) 10 Wb3] or [(from 800 BC) 6 Wb4, 4 Ax3], 1 Ps2.

  51. Later Hebrew (1000-587 BC): 1 LCH* [or (after 800 BC) 1 HCH*], 1 LCH, 1 Cv3 or LH2 or Cm3 or Sp4, 1 Ax4 or Ax3, 5 Ax3, 2 Ps2 or Bw3, 1 Ps2.

  52. Cypriot (1000-496 BC): [(before 900 BC) 2 LCH*] or [(from 900 BC) 1 HCH*, 1 HCH or Cv3], 6 Sp4, 2 Ps2 or Bw3, 2 Ps2.

  53. Italian Hill Tribes(1000-290 BC): 1 Cv3*, 10 Ax3 or 10 Wb3, 1 Ps2. Umbrian, Samnite and Hernicinot allowed to use Wb3.

  54. Mannaian (950-610 BC): 1 LCH*, 2 Cv3, 5 Ax3, 3 Ps2 or Bw3, 1 Ps2.

  55. Egyptian, Libyan Dynasties (945-700 BC): 3 LCH* or [2 HCH*, 1 Cv3], 1 Cv3, 1 Wb3 (Sea peoples), 2 Ps2, [1 Bd4 (Guard), 1 Ps2, 1 Wb3 (Sea peoples)] or [2 Sp4, 1 Bw4 (Egyptian)], 2 Ps2 or 2 Sp4 (Libyan).

  56. Syrian: Neo-Hittite and Aramaean States (900-710 BC): 2 HCH*, 2 LCH [or after 750 BC: 2 HCH], 1 Cm3 or Sp4 or Ax4, 3 Ax3, 2 Ps2 or Bw3, 2 Ps2.

  57. Urartu (880-781 BC): 1 LCH*, 1 LCH or Cv3, 1 Cv3, 7 Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  58. Mesopotamian, Early Neo-Assyrian Kingdom (860-745 BC): 1 HCH* or LCH*, 2 LCH, 1 Cv3, 1 Bd3, 2 Ax3, 3 Ps2, 2 Ps2 or Bw3.

  59. Early Persian States (835-621 BC): 3 Cv3*, 4 Sp4, 5 Ps2.

  60. Phrygian (800-676 BC): 1 LCH*, 1 Cv3, 6 Ax3, 2 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Bw3.

  61. Elam, Neo-Kingdom (800-639 BC): 1 HCH* or LCH*, 2LCH or Bw3 (Kallapani chariot), 1 LH2, 7 Bw3, 1Ps2.

  62. China, Red Di (788-588 BC): 5 Wb3*, 5 Hd(ax6) (Unmotivated or poorly equipped soldiers), 2 Bw3 or Ps2.

    also see: China, Early Northern Barbarian
  63. Urartu 780-585 BC: 1 HCH*, 1 LCH, 2 Cv3, 1 Sp4 or Ax4 (Guards) or Ax3, 5 Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  64. China, Spring and Autumn(770-480 BC):

    Northern States (Chou, Qin, et.al.): 3 HCH*, [4 Sp4, 3 Bw3 or Bw4, 1 Bw3 or Bw4 or Bd3] or [(from 550 BC) 3 Bd4, 3 Bw3 or Bw4, 1 Wb3 (Northern Barbarian) or Bd3, 1 Ps2], 1 Ps2.

    Wu and Yue: 1 HCH*, [4 Sp4, 4 Bw3 or Bw4, 1 Wb3 (Convicts) or Bd3] or [(from 550 BC) 1 HCH, 3 Bd4, 3 Bw3 or Bw4, 1 Wb3, 1 Bd3], 1 Ps2, 1 Wb3 (southern Barbarian).

    Chu: 3 HCH*, [4 Sp4, 3 Bw3 or Bw4, 1 Bw3 or Bw4 or Bd3] or [(from 550 BC) 3 Bd4, 3 Bw3 or Bw4, 1 Wb3 (southern Barbarian) or Bd3 or 1 Exp (stampeding Elephants), 1 Ps2], 1 Ps2.

  65. Cimmerian, Skythian and Early Hu (750-50 BC): 1 Cv3* [or (Skythian from 300 BC) Kn3*], 8 LH2, 3 LH2 or [1 Ax3 or Hd(ax6), 2 Ps2].

  66. Mesopotamian, Babylon under the Assyrians (746-626 BC): 2 HCH*, 1 Cv3, 1 Cv3 or Ax4 or Sp4, 8 Bw3 or Ps2.

  67. Mesopotamian, Later Neo-Assyrian Kingdom (745-681 BC): 2 HCH*, 2 Cv3, 1 Ax4 [or (before 704 BC) Bd3 or (from 704 BC) Sp4], 1 Ax4, 1 Ax4 or Ax3 or Ps2, 3 Ax3 or Ps2, 2 Ps2.

  68. Egyptian, Kushite Dynasty (712-664 BC): 2 HCH*, 2 Cv3, 2 Wb3, 2 Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2, [2 Bw3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2] or [2 Sp4, 1 Bw4 (Egyptian)].

  69. Greece, Archaicand Early Classical Period (700-450 BC):

    Greece, other than Phokian, Aitolian and Acharnanian: 10 Sp4*, 1 Ps2, 1 Ps2 or Cv3.

    Phokian, Aitolian and Acharnanian: 4 Sp4*, 6 Ps2, 2 Ps2 or Sp4.

    Italian Greeks: 1 Cv3*, 1 Cv3 or LH2, 8 Sp4, 1 Ps2 or Ax3, 1 Ps2.

  70. Illyrian (700 BC - 10 AD): 1 LH2*, 8 Ax3*, 2 Ps2, 1 Ax3 or Ps2.

  71. Thracian (700 BC - 46 AD): 1 Cv3*, 2 LH2, 6 Ax3*, 3 Ps2.

  72. Vietnam (700 BC - 135 AD): [2 Wb3*, 1 Bw3, 1 Ps2 or Ax3 (Hill Tribes)] or [(only206-111 BC) 1 HCH* or Cv3*, 2 Sp4, 1 Bw4], 4 Wb3, 3 Bw3, 1 Ps2.

  73. Lydian (687-546 BC): 1 Kn3* or LCH*, 1 Kn3, 1 LH2, 1 LH2 or Ps2, 2 Sp4, 6 Ax3.

  74. Mesopotamian, New Assyrian Kingdom (680-609 BC): 2 HCH*, 2 Cv3, 2 Sp4, 1 Ax4 or Ax3, 4 Ps2, 1 LCH or Ax4 (Kallapani chariot) or Bw4 (Elamite or Egyptian).

  75. Egyptian, Saitic Dynasty (660-525 BC): 1 HCH*, 1 Cv3 or LH2, 2 Sp4 (Hoplites), 4 Sp4 (Egyptian), 2 Bw4, 2 Ps2.

  76. Early Macedonian (650-355 BC): 1 Cv3* or Kn3*, 8 Ax3, 2 Sp4, 1 Ps2.

  77. Italian, Umbrian (650-290 BC): 1 Cv3*, 9 Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  78. Italian, Early Latin (650-400 BC, incl. Rome till 578 BC): 1 Cv3*, 10 Sp4, 1 Ps2.

  79. Italian, Etruscans (650-450 BC): 1 LCH*, 1 Cv3, 8 Sp4, 2 Ps2.

  80. Kyrenean Greeks (630-314 BC): 2 LCH*, 6 Sp4, 4 Ps2.

  81. Mesopotamian, Babylon Kingdom (625-539 BC): 2 HCH*, 1 Cv3, 1 Cv3 or LH2 (Skythian), 2 Sp4 (Guards and/or Hoplites) or Cm3 (Arab), 6 Bw3.

  82. Mede Kingdom (620-550 BC): 3 Cv3*, 4 Sp4, 2 Bw3, 2 Ps2, 1 LH2 (Kaspian or Parikanian) or Ax3 (Armenian).

  83. Kushite Kingdom in Merok (590 BC - 350 AD): 1 Cv3* [or (from 300 BC) El*], 1 Cv3, 6 Wb3, 3 Bw3, 1 Ps2.

  84. Rome after the reforms of Servius Tullius (578(?)-400 BC): 2 Cv3*, 6 Sp4*, 2 Ax4 or 2 Ps2, 2 Ps2.

  85. Persian: Early Achaemenid (550-465 BC): 1 LCH* or Cv3*, 1 Cv3, 1 LH2, 1 LH2 or Ax3, 4 Bw4, 1 Bw3, 1 Ps2, 2 Bw4 or [(from 546 BC) 1 Sp4 (Egyptian or Greece) or Ax4 (Egyptian Marines), 1 Sp4 (Lydianor Greece)or Ps2].

  86. Carthage, Early Period (550-275 BC): 2 HCH* or Cv3*, 1 LH2, 4 Sp4, 1 Ax3 (Spanish), 2 Ps2, 1 Ax4 (Campanian) or Wb3 (Gallic), 1 Ax3 (Spanish or Ligurian) or Ps2 (Ligurian or Sardinian) or Wb3 (Gallic).

  87. Lykian (546-300 BC): 1 Cv3* [or (till 500 BC) LCH*], 1 Bd3, 6 Ax3, 2 Sp4 (Hoplites) or Ax3, 2 Ps2.

  88. Paionian (512-284 BC): 1 LH2*, 10 Ax3 or Ps2, 1 Ps2.

[ Book 1 ] [ Book 2 ] [ Book 3 ] [ Book 4 ]


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Last Updated: July 10, 1999

Questions, comments, suggestions welcome. Send them to Chris Brantley at IamFanaticus@gmail.com.